A bill of lading is a document issued by a cargo carrier to a cargo owner. Verifies ownership of shipped goods
The bill of lading performs several functions simultaneously:
- receipt of the carrier in receipt of cargo for carriage, with a simultaneous description of the apparent condition of the goods;
- consignment note;
- confirmation of the contract of carriage of the goods;
- document of title;
- Can serve as collateral for goods shipped.
Bills of lading differ in the way of transfer of ownership of goods to the following types of these documents:
- On Board Bill of Lading (Board B / L) - certifying that the goods accepted for transportation are actually loaded on the vessel.
- Delivery order is a document of title issued by the carrier or consignee with confirmation by the master of the vessel. Used in the case of a partial sale by the consignee of the goods before it took delivery. Shared Bill Of Lading - an order to transfer a certain part of the cargo to be transported at the port of destination to another person.
- Insured Bill of Lading - is a combination of a transport document with an insurance policy and serves as proof of both the reception of cargo for transportation and its insurance, it is used for the carriage of goods in containers.
- Straight Bill of Lading (Straight B / L) - drawn up in the name of a certain consignee. By a nominal bill of lading, the consignment is transferred to the destination port to the consignee specified in the bill of lading. The goods can be delivered to another person only on the basis of a transaction executed in compliance with the rules established for the transfer of the debt claim.
- Коносамент на предъявителя – передается в обмен на груз путем простого вручения.
- Bearer bill of lading - is transferred in exchange for cargo by simple delivery.
- A bill of lading for goods received for loading - Received for shipment Bill of Lading - A bill of lading for cargo accepted for loading in a port in anticipation of a ship that has not yet arrived.
- Liner bill of Lading (Liner B / L) is a bill of lading issued by or on behalf of a shipping company and covering shipping on ships that are on regular routes in accordance with an established and published schedule.
- A bill of lading with reservations ("unclean" bill of lading, "dirty" bill of lading) - Claused bill of Lading (Claused B / L; Unclean bill of lading) - a bill of lading in which marks are made about damage to cargo and / or packaging.
- Local bill of Lading - with reference to a through bill of lading, according to which the cargo is accepted for transportation. Local bills of lading are of service importance for reporting lines, ports and are not document control documents.
- Negotiable bill of landing (Negotiable B / L) - according to which the goods are transferred either to the "order" of the consignor, or to the order of the consignee, or to the order of the bank, or to the transfer inscription of the person whose "order" it was drafted. If the order in the bill of lading does not specify that it was drawn up by the "order" of the recipient, it is considered that it is composed of the "order" of the sender. "Order" - a note about the person to whom the goods are transferred. Assume that the recipient can not work with the cargo at the port of destination, in this case the freight is accepted by the freight forwarder, who will be that person.
- Direct bill of lading - a bill of lading covering the shipment between the direct ports of loading and unloading on the same vessel.
- Combined (Collapsible) bill of lading - for several consignments intended for different consignees.
- Through Bill of Lading (Through B / L, TBL) - providing for transshipment of cargo to another ship at an intermediate point and covering all cargo transportation from the port of loading to the final destination. Such transportation is possible if the carrier has several regular lines in various directions or by agreement between two carriers - the receiving cargo at the port of departure and delivering it further from the port of transshipment. Typically, carriers, jointly carrying the goods through the bill of lading, stipulate their mutual obligations - each carrier is responsible only for the part of the way in which he performs the transportation. With a through bill of lading, it is important to have clear marks on the transfer of goods from one carrier to another.
- Sea waybill is an electronic document confirming the right of possession of goods, a simplified bill of lading, which is transferred by the consignor to the consignee after the issuance of the document. It is a simplified form of documentation, primarily for long-term transactions between regular partners or branches of large firms, when there is a sufficiently high degree of trust between the consignor and the consignee of the goods.
- Bill of Lading (B / L, BOL) is a document issued by the carrier to the cargo owner. It certifies the ownership of the shipped goods.